# Physics Course Offerings

The following course information is provided for your convenience. Schedules are subject to change and should be checked on LORIS, where location information can also be found. Full, official academic information can be found on the academic calendars. It is your responsibility to check the appropriate calendar.

Physics students who would like to take more than 2.5 credits in one term will have to fill out the Physics and Computer Science Course Overload Request Form.

All physics courses are 0.5 credits.

### For Physics Students

**PC131: Mechanics (Fall)**

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: one-dimensional motion, vectors, motion in two and three dimensions, force and motion, kinetic energy and work, potential energy, conservation of energy, collisions and momentum, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion, torque, angular momentum, and gravitation.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours (biweekly)****Prerequisites:** OAC or Grade 12U Physics or Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus.**Co-requisites:** MA100 or MA110* or MA103 or MA105.**Exclusions:** PC100*, PC110*, PC141, PC151, PC161, SC100.

**Note:** Students taking calculus concurrently with this course, should register for the calculus course first and then register for the physics course.

**PC132: Thermodynamics and Waves (Winter)**

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: elasticity, fluids, waves and sound, temperature and heat, the laws of thermodynamics, entropy, and an introduction to electricity.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours (biweekly)****Prerequisites:** PC131, MA110* (co-requisite) or MA101 (co-requisite) or MA103 or MA105.**Exclusions: **PC100*, PC110*, PC142, PC152, PC162.

### For Faculty of Science Students; For Physics Minor

#### First year physics is offered in two versions:

- Calculus-based physics: PC131 and PC132
- Algebra-based physics: PC141 and PC142

The physics content is essentially identical but the method of delivery assumes different levels of mathematics background. Examples in PC141/PC142 favour the life sciences.

**PC131: Mechanics (Fall)**

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: one-dimensional motion, vectors, motion in two and three dimensions, force and motion, kinetic energy and work, potential energy, conservation of energy, collisions and momentum, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion, torque, angular momentum, and gravitation.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours (biweekly)****Prerequisites:** OAC or Grade 12U Physics or Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus.**Co-requisites:** MA100 or MA110* or MA103 or MA105.**Exclusions:** PC100*, PC110*, PC141, PC151, PC161, SC100.

**Note:** Students taking calculus concurrently with this course, should register for the calculus course first and then register for the physics course.

**PC132: Thermodynamics and Waves (Winter)**

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: elasticity, fluids, waves and sound, temperature and heat, the laws of thermodynamics, entropy, and an introduction to electricity.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours (biweekly)****Prerequisites:** PC131, MA110* (co-requisite) or MA101 (co-requisite) or MA103 or MA105.**Exclusions: **PC100*, PC110*, PC142, PC152, PC162.

**PC141: Mechanics for the Life Sciences (Fall / Winter / Spring: Intersession)**

Algebra-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: kinematics, motion in two dimensions, force, work and energy, linear momentum and collisions, circular motion and gravitation, rotational motion and equilibrium.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours (biweekly)****Prerequisites:** One of OAC or Grade 12U Biology, Chemistry, Math or Physics.**Exclusions: **PC100*, PC110*, PC131, PC151, PC161, SC100

**PC142: Thermodynamics and Waves for the Life Sciences (Winter)**

Algebra-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: solids and fluids, temperature, heat, thermodynamics, vibrations and waves, sound.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours (biweekly)****Prerequisites:** PC141 or PC131.**Exclusions: **PC100*, PC110*, PC132, PC152, PC162.

**Note:** students taking PC141/PC142 for the physics minor will be required to take first year calculus before proceeding to more senior physics courses.

### For Students from Other Faculties

#### First year physics is offered in two versions:

- Calculus-based physics: PC131 and PC132 (has lab requirements); PC151 and PC152 (no lab)
- Algebra-based physics: PC161 and PC162

The physics content is essentially identical but the method of delivery assumes different levels of mathematics background. Examples in PC161/PC162 favour the life sciences.

**PC131: Mechanics (Fall)**

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: one-dimensional motion, vectors, motion in two and three dimensions, force and motion, kinetic energy and work, potential energy, conservation of energy, collisions and momentum, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion, torque, angular momentum, and gravitation.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours (biweekly)****Prerequisites:** OAC or Grade 12U Physics or Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus.**Co-requisites:** MA100 or MA110* or MA103 or MA105.**Exclusions:** PC100*, PC110*, PC141, PC151, PC161, SC100.

**Note:** Students taking calculus concurrently with this course, should register for the calculus course first and then register for the physics course.

**PC132: Thermodynamics and Waves (Winter)**

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: elasticity, fluids, waves and sound, temperature and heat, the laws of thermodynamics, entropy, and an introduction to electricity.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours (biweekly)****Prerequisites:** PC131, MA110* (co-requisite) or MA101 (co-requisite) or MA103 or MA105.**Exclusions: **PC100*, PC110*, PC142, PC152, PC162.

**PC151: Introduction to Mechanics (Fall)**

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: one-dimensional motion, vectors, motion in two and three dimensions, force and motion, kinetic energy and work, potential energy, conservation of energy, collisions and momentum, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion, torque, angular momentum, and gravitation.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** OAC or Grade 12U Physics or Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus.**Co-requisites:** MA100 or MA110* or MA103 or MA105.**Exclusions:** PC131, PC141, PC161, BSc degree programs, physics minor.

**Note:** Students taking calculus concurrently with this course, should register for the calculus course first and then register for the physics course.

**PC152: Introduction to Thermodynamics and Waves (Winter)**

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: elasticity, fluids, waves and sound, temperature and heat, the laws of thermodynamics, entropy, and an introduction to electricity.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC131, MA110* (co-requisite) or MA101 (co-requisite) or MA103 or MA105.**Exclusions: **PC132, PC142, PC162, BSc degree programs, physics minor.

**PC161: Introduction to Mechanics for Life Sciences (Fall / Winter / Spring: Intersession)**

Algebra-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: kinematics, motion in two dimensions, force, work and energy, linear momentum and collisions, circular motion and gravitation, rotational motion and equilibrium.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** One of OAC or Grade 12U Biology, Chemistry, Math or Physics.**Exclusions: **PC131, PC141, PC151, BSc degree programs, physics minor

**PC162: Introduction to Thermodynamics and Waves for Life Sciences (Winter)**

Algebra-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: solids and fluids, temperature, heat, thermodynamics, vibrations and waves, sound.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC141 or PC131.**Exclusions: **PC132, PC142, PC152, BSc degree programs, physics minor

## 200-Level Courses

### Fall 2018

PC212: Electricity and Magnetism

PC220: Digital Electronics

### Winter 2019

PC221: Analog Electronics I

PC235: Classical Mechanics *(offered alternate years)*

PC237: Optics

PC242: Modern Physics

### 200-Level Course Descriptions

**PC212: Electricity and Magnetism**

Introduction to electrostatics and magnetostatics including Gauss' law, electric potential, capacitance, electromagnetic induction. Introductory DC and AC circuit theory. Electromagnetic waves.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC131, PC132 (or PC141 and PC142), MA122, and one of MA101 or MA110* or MA103 (or MA105)

**PC220: Digital Electronics**

Introduction to digital logic: logic gates, combinational circuit analysis using Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps, number systems and codes, minimization techniques applied to combinational logic systems; flip-flops, multivibrators, counters and shift registers.**3 lecture hours, 1.5 lab hour****Cross-Listed:** CP220**Prerequisites:** Registration status: Year 2**Exclusion:** CP120/PC120

**PC221: Analog Electronics I**

AC circuit theory, complex impedance, resonance, Norton and Thevenin Theorems, semiconductor diodes, bipolar transistors, bias circuits, h-parameters, amplification, feedback.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours****Prerequisites:** CP220/PC220 (or CP200°/PC200° or CP120/PC120), PC212.

**PC235: Classical Mechanics ***(offered alternate years)*

*(offered alternate years)*

This is an intermediate level course in classical mechanics. The major topics covered are Newtonian dynamics, dynamics of particles, non-inertial frames of reference, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, oscillations, rigid body motion.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC131, MA201, MA205

**PC236: Fundamentals of Photonics**

Introduction to photonics, the science and technology of generating and controlling light (photons). Topics include an overview of optics, light wave fundamentals, lasers, and applications of photonics in science and engineering, such as bioimaging and optical fiber communication.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** Registration status: senior student, or permission of the department

**PC237: Optics**

Nature of light: Huygen's principle, Fermat's principle.

Geometrical optics: reflection and refraction at plane and curved surfaces, lenses and lens systems.

Wave optics: interference, diffraction, polarization.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours****Prerequisites:** PC131, PC132 (or PC141, PC142) and one of MA101 or MA110* or MA103 or MA105

**PC242: Modern Physics**

Failure of classical physics and early quantum theory, blackbody radiation and Planck’s theory, the photoelectric effect and light quanta, wave particle duality, Compton scattering, De Broglie and matter waves, Davisson and Germer experiment, energy quantization, Bohr’s theory of hydrogen, topics in atomic theory and the periodic table, X-ray spectra, molecules, phenomenological description of solids, Fermi statistics, conduction, semiconductors, energy bands. Nuclear physics, radioactivity, and modern particle physics, accelerators. Relativity.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC131, PC132, (or PC141, PC142), MA205

## 300-Level Courses

### Fall 2018

PC310B: Planetary and Space Science

PC319: Digital System Design

PC320: Physical Computing: Digital Interaction with the Analog World

PC321: Quantum Mechanics I

PC344: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

PC351: Quantum Computing

PC364: Data Communication and Networks

### Winter 2019

PC315: Introduction to Scientific Computation

PC331: Quantum Mechanics II

PC360: Electromagnetic Theory

### Spring 2019

PC310B: Planetary and Space Science

PC310C: Physics for Medicine and Biology

### 300-Level Course Descriptions

**PC310: Special Topics**

A detailed examination of a field or topic of interest not covered by the regular program. Irregular course.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** Permission of the department.

**PC310B: Planetary and Space Science**

This is an introductory course in planetary and space science. We will study the basic physics, structure, morphology and evolution of each planet separately, including comets, asteroids, and meteorites, Kuiper belt and Oort cloud. We will address the most recent theories of the Solar System formation and evolution hypotheses as a whole, and we will touch briefly upon all the known theories from the tidal theory to the most recent re-emergence of the nebular hypothesis. We will also examine the corresponding outstanding issues, as well as the solar evolution hypothesis. Finally, we will discuss in a fair amount of detail the most important up to date deep space missions, their findings, and their importance in the understanding of our neighbourhood as a whole.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** Registration Status: Year 2 or greater

**PC310C: Physics for Medicine and Biology**

This is an introductory and basic interdisciplinary course in Physics for Medicine and Biology with applications to health sciences. During this course we will study the basic physics pertaining to medicine and biology. In particular with reference to mechanics, the translational and rotational equilibrium will be introduced, with the forces in the heel and hip joint as clinical examples. Stress and strain, hydrostatics, incompressible viscous flow and the Poiseuille-Bernoulli equation will be discussed, with examples from the circulatory system, and discussion on the Reynolds number. Furthermore we will discuss exponential growth and decay and give examples from pharmacology and physiology. We will touch upon topics of thermodynamics and statistical physics diffusion and transport phenomena of solute in an infinite medium, along with Fick's law and we will examine the important model of a spherical cell with pores and receptor sites. The combination of diffusion and drift is also discussed, and simple random walk will be introduced. We will discuss transport of fluid through a membrane, and in particular cell membrane, and the basement membrane in the glomerulus of the kidney or a capillary wall. We will also touch upon how an electric potential is generated in the medium surrounding a nerve or muscle cell. This leads to the current dipole model for the electrocardiogram. The model is refined to account for the anisotropy of the electrical conductivity of the heart. We will also talk about the currents in a conducting nerve or muscle cell generate a magnetic field, leading to the magnetocardiogram and the magnetoencephalogram. Some bacteria (and probably some higher organisms) contain magnetic particles used for determining spatial orientation in the earth’s magnetic field. Finally, we conclude the course with the study of X-ray, nuclear medicine, and MRI methods and principles in biology and medicine. **Prerequisite: **PC131 or PC141

**PC315: Introduction to Scientific Computation**

An introduction to scientific computation, with substantial use of scientific software, such as Maple and Matlab. Scientific problems and models from different disciplines are considered. Numerical methods introduced in this course include interpolation, curve fitting, solving (systems of) linear and nonlinear equations, eigenvalue problems, integration and solving ordinary and partial differential equations.**3 lecture hours****Cross-Listed:** CP315**Prerequisites:** CP104, MA110* (or MA103), MA122, MA205

**PC319: Digital System Design**

Logic families and interfacing considerations for logic devices, VHDL, implementation techniques for combinational and sequential logic; introduction to finite state machines and design methodologies for synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits; hazards, cycles and races; operation and interfacing of memory devices.**3 lecture hours****Cross-Listed:** CP319**Prerequisites:** CP164 (or CP114), CP220/PC220 (or CP120/PC120)

**PC320: Physical Computing: Digital Interaction with the Analog World**

Design and construction of computational systems that interact with the physical world for applications such as home or experiment automation. Basics of electrical circuits, reading from analog and digital sensors, controlling analog and digital actuators, single board computers such as Arduino or Raspberry PI, analog components including diodes, transistors and operational amplifiers.**3 lecture hours, 3 lab hours****Cross-Listed:** CP320**Prerequisites:** CP164 (or CP114), CP220/PC220 (or CP120/PC120)**Exclusion:** CP300°/PC300°

**PC321: Quantum Mechanics I**

Schroedinger equation, interpretation of the wave function, expectation value, Ehrenfest's theorem, wave packets, stationary states and energy quantization, potential wells and potential barriers, scattering and tunneling, the harmonic oscillator, Schroedinger equation in three dimensions, the hydrogen atom, WKB approximation.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC242, MA205

**PC322: Solid State Device Physics**

Operating principles of solid state devices from the viewpoint of the quantum theory, silicon and germanium diodes, tunnel diodes, junction transistors, special topics.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC242

**PC331: Quantum Mechanics II**

Advanced quantum mechanics. Topics covered include identical particles, time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory, variational principle and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC321, MA205

**PC344: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics**

An introduction to thermodynamics and its statistical basis at the microscopic level, with applications to problems originating in a modern laboratory or engineering environment. Topics include thermodynamics of model systems, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, quantum statistics and applications.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC131, PC132, (or PC141 and PC142), MA201

**PC351: Quantum Computing**

Quantum computing offers the possibility of dramatic advances in computational power compared to the best computers we have today. In addition, novel quantum protocols such as teleportation and quantum cryptography have already been demonstrated. This course provides an introduction to this exciting and cutting-edge field. Topics include an overview of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, teleportation, secure quantum communication, Shor's factoring algorithm, Grover's search protocol, quantum error correction and the latest state-of-the-art experiments. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is required.**3 lecture hours****Cross-Listed:** CP351**Prerequisites:** MA122 and registration status: Year 3 or Year 4, majoring in physics, computer science, mathematics or chemistry**Exclusions: **CP310A/PC310A.

**PC360: Electromagnetic Theory**

Maxwell's equations, plane wave theory of waveguides, radiating systems.**3 lecture hours**

**Prerequisites:**PC212, PC237, MA201, MA205

**PC364: Data Communication and Networks**

Data communication fundamentals, with an emphasis on the physical layer and telecommunication networks, with an emphasis on the architectures and protocols will be studied. Topics include transmission media, digital data transmission, architectures of telecommunication networks.**3 lecture hours, 1.5 lab hours****Cross-Listed:** CP364**Prerequisites:** CP220/PC220 (or CP120/PC120 and CP200°/PC200°), PC212

**PC395: Directed Studies**

A detailed study of an aspect of computer electronics, photonics or physics not available through the regular program. Irregular course.**Prerequisites:** Registration status: Year 3 or 4 of an Honours Physics or Honours Computing & Computer Electronics program and permission of both the department and the instructor.

## 400-Level Courses

### Fall 2018

PC454: Solid State Physics

PC481: Fibre Optics

PC491: Directed Research Project I

PC492: Directed Research Project II

### Winter 2019

PC475: Design of Control Systems

PC492: Directed Research Project II

### 400-Level Course Descriptions

**PC400: Special Topics**

A detailed examination of a field or topic of interest not covered by the regular program. Irregular course.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** Permission of the department.

**PC400A: Quantum-nano Science and Devices**

Significant and increasingly important role in modern electronics and photonics is played by devices where quantum effects dominate or are entirely responsible for their operation. Examples include: quantum information processing devices, CMOS, resonant tunneling diodes, quantum-dots based devices. It therefore seems timely to expose students to those developments. The purpose of this course is to outline fundamental aspects as well as the description of existing devices and their potential applications.**3 lecture hoursPrerequisites:** PC321, PC454

**PC454: Solid State Physic**s

The purpose of this course is to acquaint the student with the fundamentals of solid state physics. This emphasis is on understanding the behaviour of electrons in metals and semiconductors. Topics discussed: crystal structure, reciprocal lattice, crystal binding and elastic constants, phonons, free electron Fermi gas, energy bands, semiconductor crystals and Fermi surfaces.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC321

**PC474: Optical Networks**

A study of the building blocks, the architecture and realization of optic networks; new developments in optic network technology, such as DWDM.**3 lecture hours, 1.5 lab hours****Prerequisites:** PC364, PC481

**PC475: Design of Control Systems**

Modelling of physical systems using differential equations, block diagrams, signal flow graphs, transfer functions, step response, PID controller, root locus design, Bode plots, Nyquist stability criteria, state-space design.**3 lecture hours****Prerequisites:** PC221, MA205

**PC481: Fibre Optics**

Types of fibres.

Basic theory: characteristics, numerical aperture, losses, dispersion, modes.

Passive fibre devices: couplers, connectors, splices.

Light sources: LED, solid and semiconductor lasers.

Modulators. Detectors. Systems design.**3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours**

**Prerequisites:**PC237

**PC491: Directed Research Project I**

An in-depth investigation of a topic under faculty supervision, including the submission of a formal report.**Prerequisites:** Registration status: Year 4 Honours Computing and Computer Electronics or Honours Physics and permission of the department.

**PC492: Directed Research Project II**

An in-depth investigation of a topic under faculty supervision, including the submission of a formal report.**Prerequisites:** PC491 and permission of the department.

**PC495: Directed Studies**

A detailed study of an aspect of computer electronics, photonics or physics not available through the regular program. Irregular course.**Prerequisites: **Registration status: Year 4 Honours Physics or Honours Computing & Computer Electronics and permission of both the department and the instructor.